The Mini Theories of Psychology

The Mini Theories of Psychology

Mini Theories

Mini theories are a kind of theories that are mainly helpful in explaining a particular behavior or outcome. They make inferences which are based on prior findings and the frameworks suggested by grand theories. These theories only cover a limited range of explanations. They usually focus on one or a few aspects which are interesting to a small range of researchers with similar areas of specialization. They can shed light on potential topics which include personality, persuasion, satisfaction as well as motivation.

Social learning theory:

Albert Bandura postulated social learning theory. It states that as per the theory of social learning people might possess new behaviors by observing and copying others behavior in different social situations. People learn socially as well as academically (intellectually). This implies that people not only learn from books but also socially i.e., by observing others such as friends, parents, teachers etc. People mostly grab those behavior if others are being rewarded instead of those get punished.

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Cognitive dissonance theory:

This theory was given by Leon Festinger which states that psychological distress or discomfort arises when an individual possesses two or more than two contradictory thoughts and attitudes. As per this theory, individual who faces this psychological distress tries to decrease it by making change in their attitude or thoughts to overcome from this situation. This distress influences them to bring consistency among their beliefs and attitudes by changing their thoughts and way of attitude.

Social exchange theory:

It was developed by George Homans, and it is a psychological as well as sociological theory which states that individuals measure the entire worth of a specific relationship by deducting its expenditures from the benefits or awards it furnishes. It is a good relationship when its worth is in a positive number while it is negative, it means the relationship is also negative. This theory says that an individual more likely to involve in those actions which higher their rewards as well as reduce their costs among social relationships.

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Two factor theory of emotion:

It was developed by both Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, and it suggests that emotions arise from two factors – physiological arousal as well as cognitive processes. Individuals rely on their emotional choices on signals they convey from their immediate environment. The combined effect of both factors determines their emotions or sense of feelings.

Attachment theory:

John Bowlby initially proposed this theory, and Mary Ainsworth later expanded upon it. It explores and clarifies emotional development is linked with newborns and their caretakers which also highlights the consequences of these connections for the development of an individual. It analyzes the lifetime effects of these early interactions on the development of an individual both socially and emotionally.

Self-efficacy theory:

Albert Bandura gave this theory which states that an individual’s belief or confidence in their skills might influence their motives (drives) and decisions. It’s widely accepted that self-belief is essential to succeeding in a given endeavour or endeavour. Those who have high self-efficacy build a positive mindset and experience less stress while who have low self efficacy try to avoid tasks and experience stress.

Attribution theory:

it was proposed by Fritz Heider. It describes how an individual interpret other’s intention and feelings or emotion in order to make sense of their actions or behaviors.

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Information processing theory:

It was given by George A. Miller & Richard Shiffrin which explains the process by which people record, store, and retrieve information or data from their brains. Motivation as well as behavior of a person is influenced by it. As a result, individual both actions and behaviors have an impact on society as a whole.

Hierarchy of needs:

Abraham Maslow postulated it. He stated that a person’s effort to satisfy their fundamental needs is lead by motivation. The basic needs of
an individual are five – physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. And these needs are responsible for the emergence of internal stressors which affect their behavior.

The above are the few examples of mini theories. And these mini theories provide light on specific aspects of human behavior and cognition and also the range and depth of psychological understanding and knowledge .



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