We have all heard of Psychiatric Conditions and mental conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorders and much more. But have you ever heard of these ten psychiatric conditions? Read this article to find out about these rare conditions that even many psychiatrists may have never come across in their professional lives.
1. Charles Bonnet Syndrome
Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a condition common among people with pathological vision loss. It is especially common among people with macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. This is characterized by temporary visual hallucinations with symptoms lasting up to 12-18 months. Lilliputian hallucinations, which are the perception of people, animals and objects in reduced sizes, are prevalent in this syndrome. On the bright side, the symptoms of this syndrome are likely to self-resolve by itself.
2. Diogenes Syndrome
Diogenes syndrome involves characteristics such as compulsive hoarding of rubbish items found especially among the elderly. This syndrome includes characteristics such as self-neglect, apathy, social aversion and lack of shame. The origin of this syndrome comes from the story of the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinope who decided to discard the desire for wealth, power, and fame. According to philosophy by choosing to live free from all possessions, he found virtue in poverty, lived in poor conditions and sought social interactions.
3. Capgras Disorder
Capgras disorder is a form of delusional disorder where the individual holds false beliefs that people close to them such as family, friends, relatives or a pet have been replaced with an imposter. This condition is also known as delusional misidentification syndrome. It can be treated using the drug ketamine and can take up an acute, transient, or chronic form. It is prevalent among females and is often presented as a symptom with another diagnosis.
4. Fregoli Syndrome
People who suffer from Fregoli syndrome believe that different people are the same person who has just altered their appearance. It is a form of delusional belief familiar people (often whom they consider to be their persecutors) repeatedly change their appearance. People who experience this syndrome frequently feel as though spies are watching them. This condition is named after Leopoldo Fregoli, an Italian theatre performer known for his extraordinary ability to rapidly change his look while performing. Fregoli syndrome is co-morbid with other mental conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain injury and the use of the drug Levodopa have been linked as causal factors.
5. Stendhal Syndrome
Also known as hyperchloremia or Florence Syndrome; it includes experiencing physical and emotional anxiety, panic attacks, dissociative, confusion and hallucinations when exposed to the arts. According to Medscape arts that are perceived as particular or numerous arts presented in one place like a museum or art gallery are the triggers of this syndrome.
People who experience this condition, possess an overwhelming desire to amputate healthy parts of their body. This disorder has yet to be researched and is believed to arise from a neurological disturbance. The cause of this condition is linked to damage to the right parietal lobe. This condition can be treated through the means of cognitive behavioural therapy and aversion therapies. But the major drawback in its treatment is that people with this condition don’t often seek treatment. Another term for this condition is body integrity identity disorder.
7. Cotard Syndrome
People with Cotard’s syndrome, often known as “walking corpse syndrome,” believe that they are dead and have no existence. Some individuals with this syndrome may believe that certain parts of their body are missing. This condition may be damaging as it may cause the patients to believe they are dead and have no existence. Risk factors for this syndrome involve the occurrence of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression. Antiviral drug acyclovir, antidepressants, electroconvulsive therapy, and mood stabilizers are frequently used to treat the unusual disorder. However, acyclovir may cause uncommon side effects.
8. Ekbom Syndrome
Ekbom’s syndrome is a tactile hallucination that makes its victims feel like crawling things under their skin and believe they are being parasitized. People with this condition may frequently think they have parasite infestations and feel bugs under their skin. Karl Ekbom, a Swedish neurologist, was the first to describe the condition.
9. Alien Hand Syndrome
One of the neurological conditions considered to be quite different is characterized by the experience that the individual’s limbs can act on their own, without conscious control over their actions. People with this syndrome may specifically perceive their hands to be independent of themselves and possess free will to do things. Aliens hand syndrome patients frequently detach from their hands’ movements and suffer from sensory processing. Tumours, seizures, prison sickness, and strokes can exacerbate the syndrome.
10. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome
When someone has Todd syndrome, also called Alice in Wonderland syndrome, their sense of touch, vision, hearing, and time and space are all distorted. The syndrome causes people to regularly view people as larger and objects as smaller than they are. Alternately, things appear bigger and people appear smaller than they truly are. These occurrences could be accompanied by paranoid thoughts.
Though such psychiatric syndromes and mental disorders exist, it is essential to note that these conditions don’t possess the official diagnostic criteria needed for diagnosis. That means they may co-occur with other disorders and can be considered as a symptom of the disorder but not a sole condition by itself. In addition, it also doesn’t mean that these conditions can’t occur alone. Rather the cases of these conditions occurring solely are very few or rarely too damaging, causing it to be uncommon. Along with these conditions, many other conditions exist such as synesthesia, Khyal Cap, Kufungisisa, and clinical lycanthropy.