Weak Memory Power Becomes a Big Problem in Daily Life, How to Fix It
Definition of Memory
Memory can be referred to as a psychological process that consists of acquiring, storing, and retaining information whenever needed. In memory, there are three main processes that are taking place simultaneously i.e; encoding, storage, and retrieval. According to psychologists’ memory consists of three important categories i.e; sensory memory, short-term and long-term memory.
Types of memory
1) Sensory Memory – It is that part of the memory where information is first registered. The information in the sensory memory stays for about 200-500 milliseconds after a stimulus is perceived. However, in sensory memory, the information related to all the stimuli present in the outside environment is stored whether or not it is perceived by the body’s consciousness.
2) Short-term Memory – This type of memory is capable of holding a small amount of data for a limited amount of time. The duration for storage of information in short-term memory is 30 seconds or less than that. However, techniques like chunking, recall, revision, and rehearsal are used in order to move the information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
3) Long Term Memory – This Part of the memory is capable of storing large amounts of information for a very long duration of time. The time for storage of information in long-term memory is infinite.
Note: Further long-term memory can be divided into explicit and implicit memory.
4) Explicit Memory- Explicit Memory is also known by the name declarative memory and whose major function is to do recollection of facts and events. It consists of those events and facts that we consciously try to remember.
5) Implicit Memory – Implicit memory is also known by the name of It consists of information that is remembered by us unconsciously without any effort. Implicit memory is both unconscious and unintentional in nature.
6) Atkinson and Shiriffin's modal model of memory
According to this, the human memory does three basic tasks:
- Encoding: Converting into a form that can be then entered into memory.
- Storage: Retaining information over a period of time.
- Retrieval: Locating and accessing specific information whenever it is needed.
a) Working on the Model
- The incoming information first enters the sensory memory.
- Then by the process of selective attention, only some aspect of the world around us enters the short-term memory.
- The information that survives the capacity and duration of the short-term memory finally enters the long-term memory.
b) Neural Network Models: Parallel Processing of Information
- The neural network model suggests that it is the complex system of neurons that helps an individual to process information so quickly.
- These models also propose that information is not located in a specific place within the brain; rather it is represented by patterns of activation that spread over many processing units and by the strength of the activation across these various units.
Ways of Improving Memory
1) Including physical activity in one’s daily life.
Physical activity increases blood flow to the whole body and the brain, this increase in blood flow then helps in improving memory.
2) Staying Mental Fit and Active
Doing mental exercise helps in sharpening your mind, improves concentration and learning abilities, helps in better retention, and also improves memory.
3) Socializing Regularly
Meaningful social interaction and good social support are beneficial in decreasing the chance of developing chronic stress, anxiety, or depression and since all these factors lead to a loss in memory so socializing with others can prove to be very useful in order to improve one’s memory.
4) Getting Organized
Noting down tasks somewhere as per their preferences can help in keeping things and life organized and also we don't get to forget any task or better to say no task slips from our mind.
5) Getting a Sound Quality Sleep
Getting a sound quality sleep in itself holds a lot of benefits. A good sleep pattern helps in better concentration and attention, it also reduces stress levels and plays an important role in consolidating memories, so the recall of information becomes easier.
6) Having a Healthy Diet
Having a healthy diet is not only beneficial for physical health but also for mental health. The right diet helps in sharpening up the memory however on the other hand having an unhealthy diet and excessive alcohol can lead to dullness in the memory and gradual memory loss.
7) Chronic Conditions
Certain chronic conditions like depression, high-stress levels, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, irregular thinking pattern, and obesity all can directly or indirectly cause memory loss. Hence taking care of yourself becomes very important. Then various medications that are used in order to control the symptoms of certain diseases can also have a negative effect on one’s memory
8) Trauma to the Head
Head injuries and trauma in the head due to accidents or sports can cause problems and issues in remembering and processing incoming information.
In research, it has been found that long-term exposure to smoking has resulted in a loss of working memory and prospective memory. Smoking also affects our cognitive abilities and attention and retention abilities.
10) Substance Abuse
Substance abuse can cause full dependence on that substance which then is connected to memory loss. Various substances affect our ability to recall the information that we learned before the consumption of the substance.
Conditions like dementia can cause a person not to remember the names of their close ones. People suffering from dementia keep forgetting their important tasks and events.
Almost one-third of stroke victims are likely to develop some problems related to memory. A person with a stroke may lose their ability to do various tasks, it can also lead to conditions like dementia.
Epilepsy affects a person’s retrieval ability from declarative memory. A person suffering from epilepsy has difficulty retrieving information from long-term memory.
14) Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer’s disease affects the structuring of the brain which can cause memory loss, confusion with time or place, trouble with familiar tasks, etc.
With aging a person may become more forgetful than before, this occurs because of certain changes that change the structure of the brain aging. This is the reason why old people are not able to remember many things or they find difficulty in remembering new things or information.
16) Genetic Disorders
Certain genetic disorders can cause changes in the structure of the brain which on the other hand can affect the memory of a person.
Memory is an important aspect of an individual and a disturbance in it can lead to various other problems. There are many factors that affect the working system or model of memory. Human memory is a complex process that still requires much research in it.
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